Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction

Blog 14. April 2020

Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction

It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 were removed at a little while before death while they experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation methods conclude that this individual could possibly be anywhere between 25 and 48.1 yrs . old. Nonetheless, after combining all results and analysing their accuracy and legitimacy, it’s likely that this individual is between 32 and 43 yrs . old.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points were measured and attached to the skull, then, facial muscles, features, fat and skin were produced from wax to generate a prospective antemortem style of this individual- see figure 7. After completion, it absolutely was clear that this individual was a male by having a extremely prominent jaw and forehead which links to previous conclusions.

C

B

A

Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points set up, B) shows the addition of some facial muscles, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the final, completed facial reconstruction.

not surprisingly, as this is an artistic interpretation completed by way of a band of untrained individuals without the soft tissue or portrait to get results alongside, this technique is quite subjective and so not to reliable at recreating an individual’s morphological faculties for identification. Therefore, this might be improved using computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), an extremely reproducible DNA profiling technique, was performed to spot the common D1S80 variable nucleotide tandem repeat through this individual’s DNA sample and when compared with those of 7 missing people. Nonetheless, absence of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, prevents matching to known genotypes. This might be as a result of poor primer specificity or synthesis or inadequate, faulty DNA into the sample (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcome from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis of this PCR services and products. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

Therefore, to discover a match, AFLP must be repeated ensuring there was adequate, unfragmented DNA along with a proper, high specificity primer. Primer dimers in the bottom of lane 9 suggests the primer concentration was too much, therefore, in order to avoid allelic dropout which might assume homozygosity, lower concentrations must be used when repeating.

AFLP requires high quality and amount of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, nonetheless, it’s likely that this can not be achieved using this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may possibly provide greater outcomes as it requires less DNA as a result of improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, it’s possible to estimate this is a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was simply 174cm tall, coping with acromegaly. The likely reason behind death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortuitously, these conclusions can not be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to ensure this individual’s identity could add more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

Sources

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination utilising the Hipbone as well as the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Peoples osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
  • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism into the tooth-crown diameters of this deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination on the basis of the os pubis: an assessment of this Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks practices. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological practices. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Tips for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of this human being skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The human being skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised way for the determination of skeletal age at death on the basis of the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition into the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Offered by: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
  • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual approach to sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
  • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
  • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
  • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
  • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

extended essay ib biology

Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Cranial length

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion length

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height of this processus mastoideus

36.67

These measurements were then inputted in to the formula below to ascertain sex from the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of this processus mastoideus*6.071)

If result is larger than 2676.39, the person is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the person is female.

Appendix B

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There measurements where then inputted in to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to ascertain sex from the pelvis and femur.

Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is higher than 0.5, the person is male, if P is not as much as 0.5, the person is female.

Appendix C

set of corresponding states and ages for every single of this 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

  1. Acetabular groove
    • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
  2. Acetabular rim shape
    • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
  3. Acetabular rim porosity
    • State 2 – predicted age: 39
  4. Apex activity
    • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
  5. Activity regarding the exterior edge of the acetabular fossa
    • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
  6. Activity of this acetabular fossa
    • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
  7. Porosities of this acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

nonetheless, cranial suture closure is known as unreliable and inaccurate as it usually under‐ages older adults and over‐ages sub-adults (Molleson and Cox 1993). More over, this individual’s acromegaly caused extortionate outgrowth of bone round the sutures, potentially affecting their closure and, thus, impacting age determination. As a result, an even more reliable approach to ageing the skull involves considering dentition.

Teeth will be the least destructible an element of the human anatomy, making them exemplary for age estimation. No deciduous dentition and proof tooth 8 alveolar processes indicate this individual was at least 18 yrs . old (Carr, 1962). Dental wear analysis provides more accurate age determination than those mentioned before as it examines enamel which can not be remodelled. a widely used method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), but, as shown in figure 5 and 6, extortionate ante- and postmortem tooth loss means only two mandibular molars exist, preventing any valid age estimation.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies web sites of postmortem tooth loss, 2) shows antemortem tooth loss, 3) suggests alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) suggests aspects of decay.

Figure 6, utilising the University of Sheffield dental chart, shows which teeth are present, which were extracted and any fractures seen. It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 were removed at a little while before death while they experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation methods conclude that this individual could possibly be anywhere between 25 and 48.1 yrs . old. Nonetheless, after combining all results and analysing their accuracy and legitimacy, it’s likely that this individual is between 32 and 43 yrs . old.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points were measured and attached to the skull, then, facial muscles, features, fat and skin were produced from wax to generate a prospective antemortem style of this individual- see figure 7. After completion, it absolutely was clear that this individual was a male by having a extremely prominent jaw and forehead which links to previous conclusions.

C

B

A

Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points set up, B) shows the addition of some facial muscles, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the final, completed facial reconstruction.

not surprisingly, as this is an artistic interpretation completed by way of a band of untrained individuals without the soft tissue or portrait to get results alongside, this technique is quite subjective and so not to reliable at recreating an individual’s morphological faculties for identification. Therefore, this might be improved using computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), an extremely reproducible DNA profiling technique, was performed to spot the common D1S80 variable nucleotide tandem repeat through this individual’s DNA sample and when compared with those of 7 missing people. Nonetheless, absence of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, prevents matching to known genotypes. This might be as a result of poor primer specificity or synthesis or inadequate, faulty DNA into the sample (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcome from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis of this PCR services and products. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

Therefore, to discover a match, AFLP must be repeated ensuring there was adequate, unfragmented DNA along with a proper, high specificity primer. Primer dimers in the bottom of lane 9 suggests the primer concentration was too much, therefore, in order to avoid allelic dropout which might assume homozygosity, lower concentrations must be used when repeating.

AFLP requires high quality and amount of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, nonetheless, it’s likely that this can not be achieved using this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may possibly provide greater outcomes as it requires less DNA as a result of improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, it’s possible to estimate this is a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was simply 174cm tall, coping with acromegaly. The likely reason behind death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortuitously, these conclusions can not be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to ensure this individual’s identity could add more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

Sources

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination utilising the Hipbone as well as the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Peoples osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
  • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism into the tooth-crown diameters of this deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination on the basis of the os pubis: an assessment of this Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks practices. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological practices. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Tips for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of this human being skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The human being skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised way for the determination of skeletal age at death on the basis of the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition into the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Offered by: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
  • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed visual approach to sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
  • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Using the Acetabulum to Estimate Age at Death of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
  • Scheuer, L. & Black, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) Use of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Sex Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
  • Todd, T., (1921). Age changes in the pubic bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
  • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Cranial length

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion length

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height of this processus mastoideus

36.67

These measurements were then inputted in to the formula below to ascertain sex from the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of this processus mastoideus*6.071)

If result is larger than 2676.39, the person is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the person is female.

Appendix B

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There measurements where then inputted in to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to ascertain sex from the pelvis and femur.

Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is higher than 0.5, the person is male, if P is not as much as 0.5, the person is female.

Appendix C

set of corresponding states and ages for every single of this 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

  1. Acetabular groove
    • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
  2. Acetabular rim shape
    • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
  3. Acetabular rim porosity
    • State 2 – predicted age: 39
  4. Apex activity
    • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
  5. Activity regarding the exterior edge of the acetabular fossa
    • State 2 – predicted age: 32.3
  6. Activity of this acetabular fossa
    • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
  7. Porosities of this acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

Teeth will be the least destructible an element of the human anatomy, making them exemplary for age estimation. No deciduous dentition and proof tooth 8 alveolar processes indicate this individual was at least 18 yrs . old (Carr, 1962). Dental wear analysis provides more accurate age determination than those mentioned before as it examines enamel which can not be remodelled. a widely used method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), but, as shown in figure 5 and 6, extortionate ante- and postmortem tooth loss means only two mandibular molars exist, preventing any valid age estimation.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies web sites of postmortem tooth loss, 2) shows antemortem tooth loss, 3) suggests alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) suggests aspects of decay.

Figure 6, utilising the University of Sheffield dental chart, shows which teeth are present, which were extracted and any fractures seen. It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 were removed at a little while before death while they experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation methods conclude that this individual could possibly be anywhere between 25 and 48.1 yrs . old. Nonetheless, after combining all results and analysing their accuracy and legitimacy, it’s likely that this individual is between 32 and 43 yrs . old.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points were measured and attached to the skull, then, facial muscles, features, fat and skin were produced from wax to generate a prospective antemortem style of this individual- see figure 7. After completion, it absolutely was clear that this individual was a male by having a extremely prominent jaw and forehead which links to previous conclusions.

C

B

A

Figure 7 shows the stages of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points set up, B) shows the addition of some facial muscles, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the final, completed facial reconstruction.

not surprisingly, as this is an artistic interpretation completed by way of a band of untrained individuals without the soft tissue or portrait to get results alongside, this technique is quite subjective and so not to reliable at recreating an individual’s morphological faculties for identification. Therefore, this might be improved using computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), an extremely reproducible DNA profiling technique, was performed to spot the common D1S80 variable nucleotide tandem repeat through this individual’s DNA sample and when compared with those of 7 missing people. Nonetheless, absence of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, prevents matching to known genotypes. This might be as a result of poor primer specificity or synthesis or inadequate, faulty DNA into the sample (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcome from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis of this PCR services and products. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

Therefore, to discover a match, AFLP must be repeated ensuring there was adequate, unfragmented DNA along with a proper, high specificity primer. Primer dimers in the bottom of lane 9 suggests the primer concentration was too much, therefore, in order to avoid allelic dropout which might assume homozygosity, lower concentrations must be used when repeating.

AFLP requires high quality and amount of DNA to prevent allelic dropout, nonetheless, it’s likely that this can not be achieved using this DNA sample. Therefore, DNA-17 may possibly provide greater outcomes as it requires less DNA as a result of improved sensitivity and discrimination between profiles (Crown Prosecution Service, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, it’s possible to estimate this is a European male aged between 32 and 43 who was simply 174cm tall, coping with acromegaly. The likely reason behind death is co-morbidity associated with acromegaly progression. Unfortuitously, these conclusions can not be confirmed through DNA fingerprinting which reduces validation and reliability, therefore, further analysis to ensure this individual’s identity could add more reliable methods involving molecular biology and bone chemistry.

Sources

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Sex Determination utilising the Hipbone as well as the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Peoples osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Society, 196-208.
  • Black, T., (1978). Sexual dimorphism into the tooth-crown diameters of this deciduous teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age determination on the basis of the os pubis: an assessment of this Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks practices. Human Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD Manual Consumer Version. [Online]. 2017. MSD Manual Consumer Version. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race from the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological practices. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Service., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Service. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 May 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Tips for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of crania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing of this human being skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The human being skeleton in forensic medicine. American Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: A revised way for the determination of skeletal age at death on the basis of the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition into the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Research. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Project, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Sort, Research Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Offered by: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
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Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Cranial length

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion length

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height of this processus mastoideus

36.67

These measurements were then inputted in to the formula below to ascertain sex from the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height of this processus mastoideus*6.071)

If result is larger than 2676.39, the person is male, if smaller than 2676.39, the person is female.

Appendix B

Feature

Measurement (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There measurements where then inputted in to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to ascertain sex from the pelvis and femur.

Probability M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is higher than 0.5, the person is male, if P is not as much as 0.5, the person is female.

Appendix C